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Top athletes have special sports genes without talent, don’t want to get a gold medal

The latest research shows that the world’s top athletes are more or less carrying special sports genes

In the London Olympic Games, players of various countries are constantly challenging the limits of human movement.The latest research shows that the world’s top athletes have more or less sports genes with some special “enhanced performances”, allowing them to have sports talents such as explosiveness and endurance of ordinary people.If you want to win the gold medal at the Olympic Games, maybe, like many scientists now, first check if you have won the “Gold Medal” “Lottery” award.

Plan: Zhao Jie

Text: Reporter Li Wen

Figure: gettyImages

70%exercise capabilities rely on genetic genes

Although reluctant, we have to admit that some people are more suitable for exercise.A recent article published by the British “Nature” magazine website stated that in the future, the Olympic Games may become a “Superman” athlete conference.On the one hand, the world’s top athletes have more or less sports genes with special “enhanced performances”, allowing them to have sports talents such as the explosive power and endurance of ordinary people.On the other hand, technological methods such as modern gene therapy have also become “gene stimulants” and are used by some people to transform the body of athletes in violation of regulations.It is getting closer to the invisible transformation inside the body, so that the “donkey cart” that the anti -doping detection has had to catch up with the “rocket” developed.

Professor Hu Yang of the Science Research Center of Beijing Sports University has long been engaged in sports -related genetic studies. In an exclusive interview with this newspaper, he said: “At present, scientists have discovered more than 200 genes that may be related to exercise capabilities. They have bones with bonesDental and grip -related, some control the oxygen supply capacity of the muscles, some are related to the vertical jumping ability of the legs, and some are associated with the thigh muscles.How exactly does it work?

Studies have shown that genetic genes do play a key decisive role in exercise capabilities.In Hu Yang’s view, the world’s top athletes who can go to the Olympic Games do have special genes given by the heavens, and we call it “gold medal gene”.70%of the sports ability depends on genetic genes. If you do lack the “golden gene”, you may wish to enjoy sports as an amateur hobby, and don’t be too attached to seize the Olympic gold medal.

Speed gene and endurance gene

The current project to find special motor genes can be regarded as the latest stage discovery as the “Astronomer 3” gene (ACTN3) and “vascular tensionase converting enzyme” (ACE) gene.

ACTN3 is considered to be genes related to explosive motion such as sprinting. It is currently the earliest and more thorough sports genes that scientists have studied.The R -type variation of this gene may allow the human body to generate a protein that exists in fast muscle fibers, providing explosive power for the human body, and X -type variation will inhibit the production of this protein.The ACTN3 gene is also named “Speed Gene”.

According to reports, researchers at the Australian Sports Institute believe that under the same training, those athletes with congenital genetic advantages can achieve better results.According to the data, “Among the 737 athletes they surveyed, ordinary athletes have a ratio of ACTN3 genes about 30%; high -level endurance project athletes, such as long -distance running athletes, have a ratio of about 50%of the Actn3 gene;The explosive projects participating in the Olympic Games and obtaining top sports results, such as athletes of sprinting and weightlifting projects, the proportion of carriers of the ACTN3 gene is as high as 95%; especially among female athletes in explosive projects, the proportion of this gene is as high as 100%. “

According to data, in addition to athletes with this gene, this gene also exists in 85%of Africans and 50%of Europeans and Asians.However, the billions of people who have no one who have this gene “lottery” may re -evaluate the feasibility of the “dream” that they want to get medals in the Olympic Games.

In contrast, ACE genes are closely related to endurance movements such as long -distance running and can be called “endurance genes”.According to reports, athletes carrying ACE genes “i” mutations are more likely to climb the 8000 -meter peak than athletes without the mutation.Nepal Kandu Valley Xuepa people have 94%of people with “i” variants; and only 45%to 70%of other races have this mutation.This mutation will increase people’s tolerance.Studies on British runners have found that this genetic mutation is most common among athletes with good endurance.

Use genetic standards

May be more stable

Hu Yang and his team are currently trying to find genes related to training sensitivity.He pointed out: “The same training scheme, some athletes have good training effects, and others are not effective. This is likely to be some special genes behind this. If you can really find such genes, you can not only better train athletes in the future to better train athletes in the future.It is also helpful for mass fitness. For example, we can give different personalized fitness prescriptions for different people according to the individual differences of genes. “

He pointed out that when selecting a good athlete Miaozi, compared with traditional morphological and physiological indicators, the selection of genetic indicators in the future may be more stable.”Genes will not change from birth, and personal physical forms can not be relatively fixed until the age of 17 or eight. Many young people who have begun to enter the sports school at the age of 14 or five will change greatly after adulthood.When it looks like a good material for exercise, but when you grow up, you look like you are in the direction of forecasting.Standard, the evaluation of the material can be greatly advanced. “He said.

However, it may be too early to apply it.Hu Yang pointed out that there are still many questioning places to find special exercise genes.”If the samples are widely collected in the crowd, the sports genes found may not be high and lack of representativeness. If you only look for top athletes such as the world champion, it will not be fundamentally fundamental because these people are too small.Explain the problem.

In addition, people in different ethnic and different regions have great differences in the correlation between genetic and sports capabilities.Hu Yang pointed out that taking the ACTN3 gene and ACE gene, for example, putting foreign research results in China for comparison research, and found that it was not applicable.For another example, in different regions of China, the differences in the group are also obvious. For example, in Guangdong, it is relatively easy to run a sprint and weightlifting athletes. In the northeast, you can choose to pull out more long runners.

Fighting “gene stimulant”:

The Olympic Games is not the battlefield of mutant corner fighters

Although the most basic research of exercise genes is not mature, “gene stimulants” drugs and genetic transformation therapy have begun to be applied by some sports madmen who want to win gold.

With the emergence of revolutionary gene therapy for damage or pathogenic genes, people have found that genetic therapy that was originally used to treat patients with severe anemia can improve the aerobic metabolic capabilities of athletes.Gene therapy used to treat patients with severe muscle weakness can increase the strength of muscle muscles in specific parts.According to the requirements of different competitive projects, genetic technology can make specific transformations of muscles in different parts of the human body: injecting a javelin athletes that enhance muscle genes, breaking the world records and being easy to reflect;You can easily run the full process, break through the 2 -hour mark … It is not no person who wants to transform his own genes more crazy to become a “genius”.Technically, this is just a matter of time.

When technology is wrongly applied, it will bring endless calamity.If the number of blood red blood cells is excessive, the blood will become sticky. The heart has to force the viscous blood like a pump like a pump to use narrow blood vessels, and the risk of high blood pressure and stroke will increase significantly.Excessive growth of muscle volume will increase the possibility of linked tissue damage and have the risk of tumor.

Hu Yang pointed out that genetic stimulants are more hidden than traditional stimulants, but the harm is greater.Because this affects not only the athlete itself, but also the next generation.In addition, genetically modified cells fall or excrete will cause pollution to the surrounding environment.Although in clinical studies, no patients with pollution were found, when athletes abused gene stimulants, pollution of the environment would be difficult to control.

The World Anti -Doping Organization WADA has clearly included genetic stimulants in the disabled drugs in 2003.WADA Chairman Pound said: “We hope that the gold medal will give those athletes who are honest and competitive … what we need is athletes, not gown fighters; what we need is real people, not mutants.”

Some exercise genes may be stimulated the day after tomorrow

Why are Ethiopia, Kenya, and Jamaica prone to track and field geniuses?

Biology Professor of the University of Glasgow in the United Kingdom has carried out long -term research in these countries.When he inspected a village where Kenya came out of a lot of long -distance running generals, he found that the innate genetic factors and the acquired environmental factors were actually complicatedly entangled.It turns out that for a long time, children in this village run 5 kilometers a day and go to schools far away from the village to go to school, 10 kilometers a day.Such an acquired environment has made villagers from generation to generation conduct long -distance running training every day.The gene that is good at long -distance running may be stimulated in such a living environment.This gene also continues in the village through blood relationships.